Also sighted are affected, including the rescue forces entered a building in the event of an emergency for the first time. Here the architecture can help a critical part, to create solutions for safe and independent moving of all visitors and residents. Also, the architecture for the blind and visually impaired is subject to special and diverse criteria which are regulated for public buildings in 18040 accessibility standards and 1450 building for the blind. But what is actually accessible to build it? Within the meaning of the Disability Equality Act (BGG), all structures are then barrier-free, if they are accessible and can be used without particular difficulty and basically unassisted for everyone. To implement accessibility, the two sense principle is maintained consistently. If a sense fails, therefore appropriate information, warnings and instructions must at the same time for at least a further sense be mediated.
Challenges for architects, one of the key tasks for the designers is the differentiation between the utter failure of one mind (blindness, deafness), and the constraint of a sensory (Visual impairment, deafness). This approach is important, because also the architectural measures necessary to compensate for significantly different. So, a visually well contrasted and displayed in large characters information sign helps a blind man nothing. As well, it is the visually impaired with a sign only in Braille. The intersection, which exhibit these groups, are acoustic and tactile AIDS. Differences in accessibility from the perspective of visually impaired people are, for example, the high-contrast design of all equipment and controls, the marking of danger areas (E.g. stairs, glass doors) and the Visual information in a suitable manner (luminance, shape, size, etc.).
Blind people must get a mental picture of their environment on the other hand. Therefore straightforward, right-angled spatial structures, closed guidance and control systems (E.g. soil indicators), written information in profile or Braille or audible playback a much tactile contrast (material, shape, surface) are necessary to ensure the mobility and orientation.